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Sections on this page: | Symbol | Fonts | Converters/Calculators | Tools

This page is maintained by Patrick O'Beirne of, author of the book+CD "Managing the Euro in Information Systems: Strategies for success", available from Amazon.

Patrick O'Beirne also provides consulting services in spreadsheet model design, review, audit, and testing.

Official Euro Partner

The euro currency


Index to euro-related pages in this web site

 Euro Conversion Calculator to convert EU currencies, and US$, UK£ etc.
 EMU Index - the general euro index page with recommended books on the Euro
 Euro FAQ - answers questions on the technological challenges of euro transition
 Euro and EMU Questions answered on EMU, economics, and web rings
 National information Euro Links
largely historical but including UK

 General Euro Web links
non-country-specific sites and European Commission
 Euro Info: europapers, magazines, documents
Glossary Euro-papers, Publications
 Patrick O'Beirne's Articles on EMU, the euro, I.T. and Information Systems
 Euro Workshop: our course outline accurate euro systems conversion.
 BASDA Accreditation for euro conversion and our Euro Certification Testing services


(The revision history of this document is at the bottom) 

The construction of the euro symbol / logo / glyph (not found June 2003)
Euro logo colour specification and downloadable vector (WMF) and bitmap (TIF) images with and without construction lines and angles. A constructor image on line
The €uro: from Logo to Letter by Jürgen Siebert, Font Magazine. History, controversy among typographers, typeface publishers and their solutions.
How to construct the logo using METAFONT. (French) (English translation)
Download containing .cdr (Corel Draw 6) .ai (Adobe Illustrator), .wmf (Windows Metafile), .ttf (Truetype font) jsf's Europage - Fonts and Euro Symbol Links to AFII, CP1252, ETS 300 706, TC304-IR1, OCRB, etc.
Notes on the euro symbol (PDF, v4.4, 21/03/1999, 34pp, 409K). This document, made available by John Gray, contains information about how the euro symbol is supported in Microsoft operating systems and Office packages. This more-or-less final update takes into account the recent Microsoft limited euro-support for Windows 3.x (which can be supplemented, at your own risk, with the euro-fonts originally intended for Windows 95/98/NT!), and has some minor changes over the previous version posted on this site two months ago.  He also contributes a smaller 81K version win3xeur.pdf specially for the Windows 3.x users still out there.
Some browsers have problems when downloading files. If you experience problems, simply right-click on the pdf link and choose "Save Link As" or "Save Target As". Microsoft's Euro Resource centre on TechNet. Features: Preparing Desktop PCs for the Euro; Microsoft White Papers on the Euro; Euro Currency Support for Windows; Office Support for Euro; The Euro Currency Symbol Q&A XL97: Excel Interprets Euro Values as Text (MS Bug Knowledgebase). To look for more issues, search the knowledgebase for these additional query words: excel97 xl97 euro problems.
You can search the Microsoft support site for updates, patches, fonts, free downloads, information on the keystrokes to obtain the symbol in various keyboard layouts. For example, in the UK and Ireland, the key combination is AltGr+4. (The AltGr key is the same as holding Alt+Ctrl together) "The Euro toolbar button for Excel 97 allows you to format currency using the euro. The Euro button will be added to the right of the Currency Style button on the Formatting toolbar and will apply a euro style to numbers that show two decimal digits and follow the regional settings decimal separator and thousands separator."
Euro Currency Tools Add-in is Now Available for Excel 2000 SR-1
Pc/Windows: Download the Windows 95 Euro product update from the Microsoft web page at and install the software on your PC.  Also, see the Microsoft Typography FAQ page: Jan Huffman reported in 1998 on tests on various MS products with the MS fonts and they work in Office 97 but not earlier versions. Apple have started adding the symbol to their fonts. It can be specified using Unicode or via GX features.  Adobe provided in 1998 fonts for free download: Euro Sans/Serif/Mono. For each font style, every character in the font, except the Space character, is an identical Euro. Adobe have also added the Euro to their Symbol font. 
John Gray reports that gives the Unicode address of the Euro as U+20AC.
Baldev Soor of the Globalization Centre of Competency, IBM offers this documentation:
changes in the behavior, handling, and shipment of locales 
Monetary formats for the EURO (PDF)
Microsoft do not offer the euro symbol in MSDOS. There are two workarounds, one using the IBM PCDOS Y2K patch, the other Uwe Sieber's NewDOS fonts. A Wordperfect for DOS support page by Edward Mendelson shows how to get the euro symbol in MS-DOS and full-screen DOS boxes in Windows 95, 98, and ME. Firstly, backup the existing files ega.cpi and keyboard.sys. Then visit the IBM PC DOS 7 Y2K patch FTP site: 
Download the file dos7??y2.exe dated 12/15/1998 12:00AM 1,362,732 bytes. (?? is the country code, US for USA and UK PCs) Run it to extract the file DOSUPDAT.EXE, then run that to extract EGA.CPI and KEYBOARD.SYS which replace the files of the same name in the C:\Windows\Command directory. The IBM euro symbol looks rather odd, the top and bottom curves of the E have curious excrescences.
From: Dick Koster on comp.lang.clipper
Subject: Printing Euro sign - new solution 
What the following does is to send a "C", backspace, switch to a smaller font, reposition slightly upwards, send a "double horizontal line drawing graphic"; and then undo all the changes. HP printers only! HP laser printers need a 0.1 row repositioning; on an HP deskjet, it is better to reposition with only 0.05 row.

set printer on
* Move print position up 0.1 row (LJ) or .05 (DJ)
dotoneup:=chr(27)+"&a-.1R" // -.05R (DJ)
* Move print position down 0.1 row (LJ) or .05 (DJ)
dotonedown:=chr(27)+"&a+.1R"  // +.05R (DJ)
* pitch 16 cpi
* pitch 10 cpi
* Print 100 Euro
? "C"+chr(8)+dotoneup+cpi16+chr(205)+;
chr(8)+dotonedown+cpi10+" "+"100"

Download this HP Macro contributed by Klas Engwall of Engwall InfoTech AB in Göteborg (April 2001) 
The Euro macros for LaserJet printers
"It is a solution for printing the Euro character, not for displaying it on screen. Also, it will only work on the HP LaserJet 4 and newer HP laser printers and on LaserJet compatible printers from other manufacturers. It will not work on dot matrix or ink printers or on laser printers that do not support the PCL5 printer control language. It is also only designed for those who print in character mode using the built-in fixed pitch Courier font of the laser printer. In this document, all supported printers are referred to as LaserJet printers irrespective of manufacturer."
Hewlett-Packard provide a CD of euro patches; and patches can be downloaded from their web site: An overview of solutions for printing the euro character
List of already Euro enabled HP printers:
HP LaserJet Printers - Euro Symbol Font Compatibility Information
The following shows which HP LaserJet printers are "Euro Ready" and how to obtain a Euro solution for printers that do not have support for the Euro symbol.
HP eurosign fonts developer's reference guide: 
HP has produced two styles of Euro soft fonts, EuroSign and EuroSign Mono. 
Downloadable fonts for Windows, DOS and Unix: 
Euro SIMM for HP LaserJets:
Keyboard Layout Utility
http://solair.eunet.yu/~minya/Programs/klm/index.html Keyboard Layout Loader (shareware). This program allows you to install a third-party layout (not created by Microsoft). For example, if you want to have a Euro sign on your standard US keyboard, you can download US layout with Euro from this site and install it on your computer using this program. It works with Windows 95, Windows 95-OSR/2, Windows 98 and Windows ME operating systems as well as with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 operating systems.

Fonts with the euro currency symbol

You can check all your system screen and printer fonts to see if they support the euro symbol using EuroCheck: (Freeware)     Download (215 KB) 8.11.01 

ConvertAll's Eurofont is a true type font which comes with a macro to automatically insert the euro symbol. This works in Word 97 and 98 and Office 2000 and can be used in conjunction with any other font. Older versions of Word can use the Eurofont but not the macro. The font is available free at NewDOS.FON from Uwe Sieber contains four new OEM-fonts for the DOS-Box and Consoles, freeware for private use. They are available with Codepages 437, 850, 865 and 852. A licence is required for commercial use and full-screen versions.

Thanks to John Gray for this list:

The EuroMatch font ($19.95) contains many different representations of the Euro symbol: (no such host April 2002)

A German site has a free downloadable TrueType font with many curiously-shaped Euros, as well as the EC 'logo'-shape, on You should click on "Euro Collection v2.1 downloaden" (12KB) 

Martin Vogel's Symbols TrueType font MARVOSYM.TTF with a few 'EC Euro'-and-other-shaped symbols (and many other unrelated symbols), available in English: "The euro sign in HTML and in some other contexts" by Jukka Korpela "the correct numeric reference is € and the correct entity reference is €" EuroType Ltd. sell EuroGlyph, a Euro symbol font enhancement tool that is compatible all the way back to Windows 3.1. Euro Currency Symbol - Font Solutions (offline Aug 2002) Euro symbols are among other fonts such as logos and personal signature from Gavin Murray. Gallagher & Robertson notes on "where is the euro placed in character sets?"  DocXpert Article "The Euro Symbol: Its Use and Known Issues" by Rex Balboa of Microsystems January 4, 2000,289483,sid26_gci879720,00.html  . Developers accustomed to declaring entities in DTDs soon discover that XML Schema offer no comparable mechanism for use of entities. Ed Tittel and Lucinda Dykes offer three alternative solutions.  Console euro font for terminal. "This font is the iso-8859-15 version of linux font project terminal font. You need a iso-8859-15 font for displaying the euro symbol (€), at least until UTF8 becomes the standard."

Euro calculator image Central Audiovisual Library, European Commission    Euro Converters and Calculators

Note that a listing here does not imply endorsement. These are just links we have found on the web. (valutaomregner, Konvertor, converter, convertidor, muuntolaite, convertisseur, convertitore, convertor, tabela de conversão, omräkningstabell, omräknare)

Click here to open our online EURO Calculator (supplied by Pim van Mun) IBM had a free limited version of the FIS euro converter for Excel. (not found June 2003) IBM Euro Ready Reckoner "ConvertAll converts documents, it automatically searches for monetary amounts and replaces (or appends) converted values, in any number of currencies, with any descriptors. It is seamlessly integrated into Word & Excel and Office 2000, network distribution allows central control of variable exchange rates and it is warranted to comply with statutory European rules." This product has now been tested and certified by Systems Modelling Ltd. to comply with the conversion and rounding rules of regulation 1103/97. "HelloEURO allows you to convert your existing data in Microsoft Word Documents, Microsoft Excel Worksheets, Microsoft Notepad to Euro. The software is optimised for Office97 and includes a Euro Calculator". Exchange-IT converts any database that has an ODBC connection   have a data scanner "EuroFind", can be integrated with Sopra Euroconverter. The Trilox EuroPrice converter (offline Aug'04) has a free calculator with euro conversion features. Other features, like the online collection of exchange rates, LAN-based configuration for corporate deployment, and the conversion of spreadsheet cell data require a license.

Geert Desmet's eurocalculator was small and simple. (gone Dec 2002) Currency Converter Pro from Niall O'Keefe is a popular CNet download.  Alex Belgraver's free currency converter have a downloadable Windows executable for a desktop calculator.  ValueScan X2€ Excel and X2€ Access    Admisoft in France EuroZap! spreadsheet converter.  Quick Euro Converter from Watre has links to Euro Conversion Tools such as add-ins for Excel. is a web site named from the EUR-DEM conversion rate, with Laurent Pele's shareware java euro calculator.  is the DSQ Euroconverter for MS Access, Excel and Word. The Euro Analysis and Conversion Wizard for Microsoft Excel 97 and higher

Software Tools

Other vendors are offering conversion tools and libraries. They feature such techniques as wrapping (or 'wrappering'), encapsulation, bridging, all of which have been generically called masking, or more facetiously 'bandaging'. These have in common the insertion of a conversion routine at some interface, whether around the database, the application, or the user input, or the output. They allow conversion to take place in one place without disturbing other parts of the system. The Application of Wrapper Techniques to the Enabling of Financial Systems for the Euro (June 1998) Scientific Computing Service Limited.

A problem that is common to all conversion efforts appears most obviously in invoices and statements. It is the fact that the sum of converted amounts is no the same as the converted original sum. This is an inevitable result of rounding (see the rules) and it is up to you to define your approach to handling this. We can explain to you what the various approaches are and their advantages and disadvantages. For example, posting adjustments for rounding differences, adding "gap fields" to the database, etc. Here is what the Association of British Insurers has to say about wrapping and euro database conversions: had a position paper "Wrappers are not viable as a general approach to euro conversion. They appear to be an unsuitable contingency option - the time and effort to complete additional systems work needed to make them more acceptable are likely to be too great, without ever addressing sufficiently well the business problems created. They may still have a role to play in the conversion approach of certain applications where the number of calculations is minimal and processing of business originating in euro is not involved." EFFAS Permanent Commission on Performance Measurement Guidelines in Respect of the Impact of Euro Conversion gives an example of how to handle historical data conversion.

You should contact these vendors directly to learn about what techniques apply in your environment. Some apply only to IBM MVS mainframes, some only to PCs.

See the euro conversion FAQ for more on euro compatibility or compliance.

Best practice in spreadsheet conversion

(11K PDF shorter version of article in Sep. 2000 Euro-Impact magazine)
Millions of spreadsheets have to be converted from national currency units to the euro. Few companies are likely to have the IT resources to devote expertise to every single one. Most employees will be left to tackle this themselves, possibly with the help of a converter. Patrick O’Beirne highlights the traps and suggests some best practice.

Version History of this page

2003-04-29 the euro symbol in XML Schemas.
2002-02-23 The Euro sign in HTML
2003-03-24 Engwall euromac page moved
2002-02-04 Eurocheck font support checker 
2001-11-29 Keyboard layout tool
2001-11-05 IBM guidance on locale changes, Currency Converter Pro. 
2001-10-17 HP Printer macros for the euro symbol 
2001-07-16 CEGS Excel/Access converter

2001-07-09 How to get the euro symbol in MS-DOS.
2001-05-25 Spreadsheet tips
2001-04-23 Microsoft support issues.
2001-04-16 Qumic font link
2001-03-31: online euro calculator added (from Pim Van Mun)
2001-03-25: Claritas Exchange-IT added


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Last updated August 21, 2008