Sections on this page:
Last update: 2002-08-12 dead links removed
This page is maintained by Patrick O'Beirne
author of the book+CD "Managing the Euro in
Information Systems: Strategies for success" available from Amazon. (The
revision history of this document is at the bottom)
Patrick O'Beirne's book "Managing the Euro in Information Systems: Strategies for
Successful Changeover" was published by Addison Wesley in August 1999, ISBN:
0-201-60482-5. Further details can be found at www.sysmod.com/maneuris.htm
Click here for a list of books on the euro and
direct links to Amazon in various countries.
See below for a more detailed academic bibliography
"InfEuro" is a free newsletter from the European Commission with news and
interviews from across Europe about the changeover. ISSN 1027-930X available from the
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg. Web
"Eurochange" is a free newsletter of the EMU Business awareness campaign of
Ireland. Tel. +353 1 6073299 Fax 6073298. They also publish an information pack
"Euro - Issues for Business", the most comprehensive business awareness pack in
Ireland, with more than 20 sections at the last count. Web
site www.emuaware.forfas.ie (offline Feb 2003)
"Euro-impact" newsletter with 30 pages of business information
per month ECU 777 per year. Tel +44 171 917 2948 Fax +44 171 439 0262, Web
www.euro-impact.com . The
current table of contents is reproduced on our EMU page.
"Euro preparation guide for companies" includes detailed checklists.
Over 1.5 million sold so far. AMUE (Association for the Monetary Union of Europe) 26 rue
de la Pépinière, 75008 Paris, or your local Employer's Confederation.
Web site www.amue.org inactive since Aug 2002.
"Managing the Changeover" AMUE & IBEC (Irish Business &
Employers Confederation) 84/86 Lr Baggot Street Dublin 2 Tel. +353 1 6601011.
Web site www.ibec.ie
"Euro currency countdown" newsletter
published by IBEC, address as above.
"EuroNotes" was a newsletter by IBM with articles from IBM
"EuroMatters" newsletter by ICL with
guides, customer stories, and web site reviews. Email Call.icl(at)icl(dot)com
or phone +44 (0) 1753 532323.
"The ABC of the EMU", Allied Irish Banks. IFSC, Dublin 1. Tel.
"Preparing for the Euro currency" The Institute of Chartered
Accountants in Ireland, 14 pp.
Irish Banker's federation : Irish Banking Review : special EMU issue, Nassau
House, Nassau Street, Dublin 2
CBI : Douglas Peedle, Senior Economist Tel 0171-379 7400
British Chambers of Commerce: Christopher Greenall, Head of Policy, Tel 0171-565 2000
Bank of England, Public Enquiries Group, Tel 0171-601 4878. The Bank of England
has a large pack containing four volumes of practical advice and information on the
impact of the Euro. It is freely available by telephoning 0171 601 4411 and asking for the
"Practical Issues ..." series on the Euro.
"The User Guide to the Euro", Federal Trust 11 Tufton St London SW1P
3QB Tel. 0044 171 799 2818
"European Monetary Union" JBA Birmingham +44 1527 496444
"The consumer and the single currency" Journal of Consumer Policy Vol
19 no. 1 1996.
The EURO-PAPERS can be seen on the official EU web site at
(Keywords: Europapers, National euro changeover pages, Maastricht Treaty, pictures of money, note,
banknote, coin, cash, euros, cent, cents, denominations, european
economic community, union europea, unione europea, comunidad
economica europea, comunidad europea, union economica europea, comunita
europea, commissione europea, integracion europea, mercado comun
europeo, sistema monetario europeo, europeen
union, union europeenne, communaute europeenne, unico europeia, uniao
europeia, europaisch,europaische, europese monetaire
unie, europese unie)
A direct link to the English language versions with more descriptions is at http://europa.eu.int/comm/economy_finance/publications/europapers_en.htm
So far the following papers have been published:
1) External aspects of economic and monetary union - July97
2) Accounting for the introduction of the euro - July97
3) The impact of the introduction of the euro on capital markets (also known as the
Giovannini report) - July97
4) Legal framework for the use of the euro (Art. 235 and 109
(109g, 109j, 109l(4) etc) Regulations, convergence criteria) - Sept97
5) Round Table on practical aspects of the changeover to the euro (political document; no
interpretations no practical advice) - Sept97
6) Checklist on the introduction of the euro for enterprises and auditors (aka FEE
checklist, very useful as an eye-opener) - Sept97
7) The introduction of the euro - Compilation of community legislation and related
documents (extremely useful, contains all legal texts on which the euro is based, includes
the legal framework. If you have this you won't need No. 4) -
updated June 1999.
8) Practical aspects of the introduction of the euro - Nov97
9) The impact of the changeover to the euro on community policies, institutions and
legislation - Nov97
10) Legal framework for the use of the euro - Questions and answers on the euro
regulations - Dec97
11) Preparing Financial Information Systems for the euro. A comprehensive document that
deals with strategic, functional, and technical consequences of the euro on information
systems. Contains a long list of potential conversion problems. Also very useful as an
12) Preparations for the changeover of public administrations to the euro. - SEC(97) 2384.
6 December 1997
13) Report of the Expert Group on Technical and Cost Aspects of Dual Display
14) Report of the expert group on banking charges for conversion to the euro - XV/115/97,
20 November 1997
15) European Monetary Institute - The legal implications of the European Monetary Union
under U.S. and New York law - December 1997
16) Commission Communication on the information strategy for the euro
17) European Commission Directorate general II Economic and Financial Affairs, The
euro : explanatory notes
18) European Commission ,Report by the working group on "acceptance of the new prices
and scales of values in euro "
19) European Commission, DG XXII Education, Training and Youth , Report of the
expert Working group "euro-education"
20) European Commission, DGXXIII - Enterprise Policy, Distributive Trades,
Tourism and Cooperatives , Report by the expert working group "Small business
and the euro"
21 ) European Commission , Communication from the Commission update on the practical
aspects of the introduction of the euro
22) DGII/D1 D(98) European Commission, DG II - Economic and Financial Affairs , The
introduction of the euro and the Rounding of currency amounts
23) Recommendations for the practical aspects of the introduction of the euro 1. banking
charges for conversion to the euro; 2. dual display of prices and other monetary amounts;
3. dialogue, monitoring and information to facilitate the transition to the euro.
24) The impact of the euro on Mediterranean partner countries
25) The introduction of the euro. These texts are an addendum to the texts originally
published as Europaper n°7 "Compilation of Community legislation and related
documents", and should be read in conjunction with that work.
26) The implications of the Introduction of the Euro for non-EU countries. It deals with a
range of issues from trade invoicing in euro and the synchronizing of business cycles to
the overall affect on international trade relations with the euro area.
27) Fact sheets on the preparation of national public administrations to the euro (Status
: 15 May 1998)
28) Debt redenomination and market conventions in stage III of EMU. This paper looks at
the scope for action, the technical specifics and the market conventions governing such
29) Expert's reports for EC DG XXIV on psycho-sociological aspects of the changeover to
30) Implementation of the Commission Recommendation on Banking Charges for Conversion to
31) How large Companies could help their small Suppliers and Distributors change over to
32) Risk capital markets, a key to job creation in Europe; from fragmentation to
33) The impact of the changeover to the euro on community policies, institutions and
34) Report to Council on the duration of the transitional period related to the
introduction of the euro
35) EU Repo Markets: Opportunities for Change
36) System Strategies & Best Practices Recommendations for the Adaptation of
Information Systems to the Euro
37) Euro coins - from design to circulation
38) Communication from the Commission on communications
strategy in the last phases of the completion of EMU
39) What would happen to a company on 1 January 2002 that
had not converted to the euro? Advice to managers and their
advisers from FEE.
40) Conference: Enterprises 2002 June 2000 A round table on
the practical impact on enterprises at the end of the
transition period. Contains FEE recommendations on how SMEs
can convert accounting systems with the minimum effort.
41) Communication from the Commission on practical aspects
of the euro. State of play and tasks ahead
42) EMU : The First Two Years by Directorate General
Economic and Financial Affairs March 2001.
New euro-papers are sometimes available first from the FEE web site
The Euro Papers can be obtained from DG II (without charge) by applying to: European
Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs
200, rue de la Loi (BU1 0/61)
1049 Brussels, Belgium
Separately from the above, DG II publishes a series of Economic Papers, which can be
obtained (free of charge) by applying to:
Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs
200 rue de la Loi (BU1 3/145)
1049 Brussels, Belgium
Background Reading for the EU : Treaties
Treaty of Nice [pdf 324Kb]
The Treaty on European Union (as amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam) [pdf 85Kb]
The Single European Act
The Treaty establishing the European Community (as amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam) [pdf 284Kb]
The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (in the version predating the Treaty of Amsterdam)
The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (in the version predating the Treaty
Bibliography on "The Economics of the European
From: Mia Mikic, Senior Lecturer, Department of
Economics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Dr. Mikic teaches a course entitled, "The European
Economies" (Supported by the European Union Award For
Excellence), and these are the books she recommends on
"The Economics of the European Union".
Artis, M. and N. Lee (1994) The Economics of the
European Union, Oxford.
Baldwin (1994) Towards an Integrated Europe, CEPR.
Dyker, D. (ed.) (1992) The European Economy,
El-Agraa, A.M. (ed.) (1994) The Economics of the
European Community, 4th edition, New York, St Martin's
Hitiris, T. (1994) European Community Economics: A
Modern Introduction, 3rd edition, Brighton, Harvester
Jovanovic, M. (1997) European Economic
Integration: Limits and Prospects, London, Routledge.
McDonald, F. and Dearden, S. (1999) European
Economic Integration, London, Longman, 2nd edition
Molle, W. (1994) The Economics of European
Integration: Theory, Practice, Policy, 2nd edition,
Nevin, E. (1990) The Economics of Europe,
Pelkmans, J. (1997) European Integration: Methods
and Economic Analysis, Addison- Wesley.
Siebert, H. (1991) The New Economic Landscape in
Europe, Oxford, Blackwell.
Tsoukalis, L.(1993) The New European Economy: The
Politics and Economics of Integration, 2nd edition, Oxford,
Oxford University Press.
Nicoll, W. and T. Salmon (1994) Understanding the
New European Community, Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
Wallace, H. and W. Wallace (1996) Policy-making in
the European Union, Oxford.
El-Agraa, A.M. (1989) The Theory and Measurement
of International Economic Integration, New York, St Martin's
Harrop, J. (1992) The Political Economy of
Integration in the European Community, 2nd edition,
Aldershot, Edward Elgar.
Overturf, S.F. (1986) The Economic Principles of
European Integration, New York, Praeger.
Pearce, J. and Sutton, J. (1986) Protection and
Industrial Policy in Europe, London, Routledge & Kegan
Siebert, H. (1991) The New Economic Landscape in
Europe, Oxford, Blackwell.
Thompson, G.F. (1993) The Political Emergence of a
New Europe? The Political Economy of Cooperation and
Competition in the 1990s, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.
Guide to the Euro by Jay H. Levin, Wayne State
University (pub. Houghton Mifflin, 2001)
Prof. Levin also recommends these books:
Paul De Grauwe (2000), Economics of
Monetary Union, Oxford University Press
Larry Neal and Daniel Barbezat (1998), The
Economics of the European Union and the Economies of Europe,
Oxford University Press
Dennis Swann (2000), The Economics of Europe,
An enormous (300K) multi-lingual glossary of euro-related
terminology from the EuropeanCommission translation
EuroDicAutom WWW Interface expert dictionary offers
translations of eurospeak jargon, terms and abbreviations in
all the EU languages.
Conversion In the euro context, this term has the
special meaning of a re-denomination, an expression of the
same quantity in a different scale by calculation at a fixed
rate, rather than the varying exchange rate for normal
"foreign currency" calculations.
EC European Commission - see CEC
ECB European Central Bank (in Frankfurt) created in June
1998 from the EMI.
ECU European Currency Unit, the weighted average of
the currencies of the twelve States which were members of
the European Community in 1979.
EEC European Economic Community, the precursor of the
EIB The European Investment Bank is the European
Union's long-term lending institution. It was created in
1958 as an autonomous body set up to finance capital
investment furthering European integration by promoting EU
EMI European Monetary Institute, now the ECB
EMS European Monetary System based on the Exchange
Rate Mechanism (ERM), a system of linking currencies within
a band of exchange rates, prior to the creation of the euro.
EMU Economic and Monetary Union (12 countries as of
EONIA Euro Overnight Index
Average, computed as a weighted average of all overnight unsecured lending transactions in the interbank
ERM2 The Exchange Rate Mechanism which will link the
currencies of non-participating Member States to the euro.
ESCB European System of Central Banks, composed of the ECB and of the national central banks.
EU European Union (all 15 countries). (Eu is also the
chemical symbol for Europium.)
Euribor A measure of the average of funds on the
whole Euro area based on a panel of 57 banks including at
least one from each member state.
Euro As noun: the name of the single currency. As
adjective: a generic prefix for "European". (In
Australia: the common wallaroo or kangaroo.)
Eurocurrency A form of money held or traded in Europe
outside of the country of origin. In the case of US dollars,
these are called Eurodollars.
Eurosystem The group
of eurozone central banks.
Eurozone Also called "euroland", the 12 countries participating in the first phase of EMU.
FEE Fédération des Experts Comptables Européens
(The Federation of European Accounting Experts) is the
representative organisation for the accountancy profession
CEC Commission of the European Communities (European
Commission). This is the executive body of the European
Union which initiates European regulations.
EURIBOR European Inter-Bank Offered Rate
ISO International Standards Organisation
LIBOR London Inter-Bank Offered Rate
Maastricht Treaty The Treaty on European Union,
signed in Maastricht, the Netherlands, on 7 February 1992 following political
agreement at the Maastricht European Council in December
1991, came into force in November 1993 and establishes the
conditions and the timetable for the introduction of the
single European currency. See http://europa.eu.int/en/record/mt/top.html
for the Maastricht Treaty text.
NCU National Currency Unit, the generic name for any
of the participating ("legacy") currencies of EMU.
SME Small to Medium Enterprise; a company employing
less than 250 employees and sales less than 40 million
euro per annum.
TARGET Trans-european Automated Real-time Gross
settlement Express Transfer
Transition period From 1 January 1999, the introduction of
the euro as the official currency of the EMU, through 31
December 2001, after which the notes and coins are
VAT Value Added Tax, a European sales tax.
Index to euro-related pages in this web site
Euro Index - the general
euro index page which briefly describes the following:
Euro Conversion FAQ - answers questions
on the technological challenges of euro transition
Articles on EMU, the euro, I.T.
and Information Systems
links : symbol, converters, calculators
Frequently Asked Questions
on EMU, economics, and the euro and web rings
National Euro information links
largely historical but including UK
General Euro web
links non-country-specific web sites and the European Commission
magazines, and other documents Glossary Euro-papers, Publications
Our course / seminar outline We provide consultancy on how to efficiently and
accurately convert business and information systems to the
euro. Also see Patrick O'Beirne's speaking engagements on the euro
BASDA Accreditation for euro conversion and
our Euro Certification Testing services
Revision History (latest first)
2002-02-14 Eurodicautom new address
2001-12-20 Jay Levin's book
2001-03-14 additions to glossary
2000-02 Initial version split off from large FAQ.