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Euro information

Official Euro Partner

Last update: 2002-08-12 dead links removed  


 This page is maintained by Patrick O'Beirne of, author of the book+CD "Managing the Euro in Information Systems: Strategies for success" available from Amazon. (The revision history of this document is at the bottom)



Patrick O'Beirne's book "Managing the Euro in Information Systems: Strategies for Successful Changeover" was published by Addison Wesley in August 1999, ISBN: 0-201-60482-5. Further details can be found at

Click here for a list of books on the euro and direct links to Amazon in various countries.

See below for a more detailed academic bibliography


"InfEuro" is a free newsletter from the European Commission with news and interviews from across Europe about the changeover. ISSN 1027-930X available from the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg. Web

"Eurochange" is a free newsletter of the EMU Business awareness campaign of Ireland. Tel. +353 1 6073299 Fax 6073298. They also publish an information pack "Euro - Issues for Business", the most comprehensive business awareness pack in Ireland, with more than 20 sections at the last count. Web site  (offline Feb 2003)

"Euro-impact" newsletter with 30 pages of business information per month ECU 777 per year. Tel +44 171 917 2948  Fax +44 171 439 0262, Web . The current table of contents is reproduced on our EMU page.

"Euro preparation guide for companies" includes detailed checklists. Over 1.5 million sold so far. AMUE (Association for the Monetary Union of Europe) 26 rue de la Pépinière, 75008 Paris, or your local Employer's Confederation. Web site inactive since Aug 2002.

"Managing the Changeover" AMUE & IBEC (Irish Business & Employers Confederation) 84/86 Lr Baggot Street Dublin 2 Tel. +353 1 6601011. Web site 

"Euro currency countdown" newsletter published by IBEC, address as above.

"EuroNotes" was a newsletter by IBM with articles from IBM customer experiences. 

"EuroMatters" newsletter by ICL with guides, customer stories, and web site reviews.  Email Call.icl(at)icl(dot)com or phone +44 (0) 1753 532323.

"The ABC of the EMU", Allied Irish Banks. IFSC, Dublin 1. Tel. +353-1-8740222

"Preparing for the Euro currency" The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland, 14 pp.

Irish Banker's federation : Irish Banking Review : special EMU issue, Nassau House, Nassau Street, Dublin 2


UK Contacts:

CBI : Douglas Peedle, Senior Economist Tel 0171-379 7400

British Chambers of Commerce: Christopher Greenall, Head of Policy, Tel 0171-565 2000

Bank of England, Public Enquiries Group, Tel 0171-601 4878. The Bank of England has a large pack containing four volumes of practical advice and information on the impact of the Euro. It is freely available by telephoning 0171 601 4411 and asking for the "Practical Issues ..." series on the Euro.

"The User Guide to the Euro", Federal Trust 11 Tufton St London SW1P 3QB Tel. 0044 171 799 2818

"European Monetary Union" JBA Birmingham +44 1527 496444

"The consumer and the single currency" Journal of Consumer Policy Vol 19 no. 1 1996.



The EURO-PAPERS can be seen on the official EU web site at (Keywords: Europapers, National euro changeover pages, Maastricht Treaty, pictures of money, note, banknote, coin, cash, euros, cent, cents, denominations, european economic community, union europea, unione europea,  comunidad economica europea, comunidad europea, union economica europea, comunita europea, commissione europea, integracion europea, mercado comun europeo, sistema monetario europeo, europeen union, union europeenne, communaute europeenne, unico europeia, uniao europeia, europaisch,europaische, europese monetaire unie, europese unie)

A direct link to the English language versions with more descriptions is at 

So far the following papers have been published:
1) External aspects of economic and monetary union - July97
2) Accounting for the introduction of the euro - July97
3) The impact of the introduction of the euro on capital markets (also known as the Giovannini report) - July97
4) Legal framework for the use of the euro (Art. 235 and 109 (109g, 109j, 109l(4) etc) Regulations, convergence criteria) - Sept97
5) Round Table on practical aspects of the changeover to the euro (political document; no interpretations no practical advice) - Sept97
6) Checklist on the introduction of the euro for enterprises and auditors (aka FEE checklist, very useful as an eye-opener) - Sept97
7) The introduction of the euro - Compilation of community legislation and related documents (extremely useful, contains all legal texts on which the euro is based, includes the legal framework. If you have this you won't need No. 4) - updated June 1999.
8) Practical aspects of the introduction of the euro - Nov97
9) The impact of the changeover to the euro on community policies, institutions and legislation - Nov97
10) Legal framework for the use of the euro - Questions and answers on the euro regulations - Dec97
11) Preparing Financial Information Systems for the euro. A comprehensive document that deals with strategic, functional, and technical consequences of the euro on information systems. Contains a long list of potential conversion problems. Also very useful as an eye-opener
12) Preparations for the changeover of public administrations to the euro. - SEC(97) 2384. 6 December 1997
13) Report of the Expert Group on Technical and Cost Aspects of Dual Display
14) Report of the expert group on banking charges for conversion to the euro - XV/115/97, 20 November 1997
15) European Monetary Institute - The legal implications of the European Monetary Union under U.S. and New York law - December 1997
16) Commission Communication on the information strategy for the euro
17) European Commission Directorate general II Economic and Financial Affairs,  The euro : explanatory notes
18) European Commission ,Report by the working group on "acceptance of the new prices and scales of values in euro "
19) European Commission, DG XXII Education, Training and Youth , Report of the expert Working group "euro-education"
20)  European Commission, DGXXIII - Enterprise Policy, Distributive Trades, Tourism and Cooperatives , Report by the expert working group "Small business and the euro"
21 ) European Commission , Communication from the Commission update on the practical aspects of the introduction of the euro
22) DGII/D1 D(98) European Commission, DG II - Economic and Financial Affairs , The introduction of the euro and the Rounding of currency amounts
23) Recommendations for the practical aspects of the introduction of the euro 1. banking charges for conversion to the euro; 2. dual display of prices and other monetary amounts; 3. dialogue, monitoring and information to facilitate the transition to the euro.
24) The impact of the euro on Mediterranean partner countries
25) The introduction of the euro. These texts are an addendum to the texts originally published as Europaper n°7 "Compilation of Community legislation and related documents", and should be read in conjunction with that work.
26) The implications of the Introduction of the Euro for non-EU countries. It deals with a range of issues from trade invoicing in euro and the synchronizing of business cycles to the overall affect on international trade relations with the euro area.
27) Fact sheets on the preparation of national public administrations to the euro (Status : 15 May 1998)
28) Debt redenomination and market conventions in stage III of EMU. This paper looks at the scope for action, the technical specifics and the market conventions governing such moves.
29) Expert's reports for EC DG XXIV on psycho-sociological aspects of the changeover to the euro
30) Implementation of the Commission Recommendation on Banking Charges for Conversion to the euro
31) How large Companies could help their small Suppliers and Distributors change over to the Euro
32) Risk capital markets, a key to job creation in Europe; from fragmentation to integration.
33) The impact of the changeover to the euro on community policies, institutions and legislation
34) Report to Council on the duration of the transitional period related to the introduction of the euro
35) EU Repo Markets: Opportunities for Change
36) System Strategies & Best Practices Recommendations for the Adaptation of Information Systems to the Euro
37) Euro coins - from design to circulation
38) Communication from the Commission on communications strategy in the last phases of the completion of EMU
39) What would happen to a company on 1 January 2002 that had not converted to the euro? Advice to managers and their advisers from FEE.
40) Conference: Enterprises 2002 June 2000 A round table on the practical impact on enterprises at the end of the transition period. Contains FEE recommendations on how SMEs can convert accounting systems with the minimum effort.
41) Communication from the Commission on practical aspects of the euro. State of play and tasks ahead
42) EMU : The First Two Years by Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs March 2001.


Official documents

New euro-papers are sometimes available first from the FEE web site

The Euro Papers can be obtained from DG II (without charge) by applying to: European Commission
Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs
200, rue de la Loi (BU1 0/61)
1049 Brussels, Belgium

Separately from the above, DG II publishes a series of Economic Papers, which can be obtained (free of charge) by applying to:

European Commission
Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs
200 rue de la Loi (BU1 3/145)
1049 Brussels, Belgium


Background Reading for the EU : Treaties 
Complete texts: 
Treaty of Nice [pdf 324Kb] 
The Treaty on European Union (as amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam) [pdf 85Kb] 
The Single European Act 
The Treaty establishing the European Community (as amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam) [pdf 284Kb] 
The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (in the version predating the Treaty of Amsterdam) 
The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (in the version predating the Treaty of Amsterdam)  

Bibliography on "The Economics of the European Union" 

From: Mia Mikic, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Dr. Mikic teaches a course entitled, "The European Economies" (Supported by the European Union Award For Excellence), and these are the books she recommends on "The Economics of the European Union". 

Artis, M. and N. Lee (1994) The Economics of the European Union, Oxford.

Baldwin (1994) Towards an Integrated Europe, CEPR.

Dyker, D. (ed.) (1992) The European Economy, London, Longman.

El-Agraa, A.M. (ed.) (1994) The Economics of the European Community, 4th edition, New York, St Martin's Press.

Hitiris, T. (1994) European Community Economics: A Modern Introduction, 3rd edition, Brighton, Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Jovanovic, M. (1997) European Economic Integration: Limits and Prospects, London, Routledge.

McDonald, F. and Dearden, S. (1999) European Economic Integration, London, Longman, 2nd edition

Molle, W. (1994) The Economics of European Integration: Theory, Practice, Policy, 2nd edition, Aldershot, Dartmouth.

Nevin, E. (1990) The Economics of Europe, Basingstoke, Macmillan.

Pelkmans, J. (1997) European Integration: Methods and Economic Analysis, Addison- Wesley.

Siebert, H. (1991) The New Economic Landscape in Europe, Oxford, Blackwell.

Tsoukalis, L.(1993) The New European Economy: The Politics and Economics of Integration, 2nd edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Nicoll, W. and T. Salmon (1994) Understanding the New European Community, Harvester-Wheatsheaf.

Wallace, H. and W. Wallace (1996) Policy-making in the European Union, Oxford.

Books (Other)

El-Agraa, A.M. (1989) The Theory and Measurement of International Economic Integration, New York, St Martin's Press.

Harrop, J. (1992) The Political Economy of Integration in the European Community, 2nd edition, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.

Overturf, S.F. (1986) The Economic Principles of European Integration, New York, Praeger.

Pearce, J. and Sutton, J. (1986) Protection and Industrial Policy in Europe, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Siebert, H. (1991) The New Economic Landscape in Europe, Oxford, Blackwell.

Thompson, G.F. (1993) The Political Emergence of a New Europe? The Political Economy of Cooperation and Competition in the 1990s, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.

A Guide to the Euro by Jay H. Levin, Wayne State University (pub. Houghton Mifflin, 2001)
Prof. Levin also recommends these books:

Paul De Grauwe (2000), Economics of Monetary Union, Oxford University Press

Larry Neal and Daniel Barbezat (1998), The Economics of the European Union and the Economies of Europe, Oxford University Press

Dennis Swann (2000), The Economics of Europe, Penguin Books


Glossary of EMU An enormous (300K) multi-lingual glossary of euro-related terminology from the EuropeanCommission translation services. EuroDicAutom WWW Interface expert dictionary offers translations of eurospeak jargon, terms and abbreviations in all the EU languages.

Conversion In the euro context, this term has the special meaning of a re-denomination, an expression of the same quantity in a different scale by calculation at a fixed rate, rather than the varying exchange rate for normal "foreign currency" calculations.

EC  European Commission - see CEC

ECB European Central Bank (in Frankfurt) created in June 1998 from the EMI.

ECU European Currency Unit, the weighted average of the currencies of the twelve States which were members of the European Community in 1979.

EEC European Economic Community, the precursor of the European Union.

EIB The European Investment Bank is the European Union's long-term lending institution. It was created in 1958 as an autonomous body set up to finance capital investment furthering European integration by promoting EU economic policies.

EMI European Monetary Institute, now the ECB

EMS European Monetary System based on the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), a system of linking currencies within a band of exchange rates, prior to the creation of the euro.

EMU Economic and Monetary Union (12 countries as of 1/1/2001)

EONIA  Euro Overnight Index Average, computed as a weighted average of all overnight unsecured lending transactions in the interbank market.

ERM2 The Exchange Rate Mechanism which will link the currencies of non-participating Member States to the euro.

ESCB European System of Central Banks, composed of the ECB and of the national central banks.

EU European Union (all 15 countries). (Eu is also the chemical symbol for Europium.)

Euribor A measure of the average of funds on the whole Euro area based on a panel of 57 banks including at least one from each member state.

Euro As noun: the name of the single currency. As adjective: a generic prefix for "European". (In Australia: the common wallaroo or kangaroo.)

Eurocurrency A form of money held or traded in Europe outside of the country of origin. In the case of US dollars, these are called Eurodollars.

Eurosystem The group of eurozone central banks.

Eurozone Also called "euroland", the 12 countries participating in the first phase of EMU.

FEE Fédération des Experts Comptables Européens (The Federation of European Accounting Experts) is the representative organisation for the accountancy profession in Europe

CEC Commission of the European Communities (European Commission). This is the executive body of the European Union which initiates European regulations.

EURIBOR European Inter-Bank Offered Rate

ISO International Standards Organisation

LIBOR London Inter-Bank Offered Rate

Maastricht Treaty The Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht, the Netherlands, on 7 February 1992 following political agreement at the Maastricht European Council in December 1991, came into force in November 1993 and establishes the conditions and the timetable for the introduction of the single European currency. See for the Maastricht Treaty text.

NCU National Currency Unit, the generic name for any of the participating ("legacy") currencies of EMU.

SME Small to Medium Enterprise; a company employing less than 250 employees and sales less than 40 million euro per annum.

TARGET Trans-european Automated Real-time Gross settlement Express Transfer

Transition period From 1 January 1999, the introduction of the euro as the official currency of the EMU, through 31 December 2001, after which the notes and coins are introduced.

VAT Value Added Tax, a European sales tax.


Index to euro-related pages in this web site

 Euro Index - the general euro index page which briefly describes the following:
 Euro Conversion FAQ - answers questions on the technological challenges of euro transition

 Articles on EMU, the euro, I.T. and Information Systems
 Euro software links : symbol, converters, calculators

 Javascript euro conversion calculator by Pim van Mun  
 Frequently Asked Questions on EMU, economics, and the euro
and web rings
 National Euro information links
largely historical but including UK

 General Euro web links
non-country-specific web sites and the European Commission
 Euro-Papers, magazines, and other documents
Glossary Euro-papers, Publications
 Our course / seminar outline We provide consultancy on how to efficiently and accurately convert business and information systems to the euro. Also see Patrick O'Beirne's speaking engagements on the euro
 BASDA Accreditation for euro conversion and our Euro Certification Testing services

Revision History (latest first)

2002-02-14 Eurodicautom new address
2001-12-20 Jay Levin's book
2001-04-23 Europaper 42
2001-03-14  additions to glossary
2000-02 Initial version split off from large FAQ.


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Last updated January 03, 2005